Tuesday, September 2, 2014

History, Evolution and development of tourism / tourism through ages
There is innumerable example in history to suggest and prove that since the beginning of time man has been traveling for different reasons .The early humans travelled from one place to another to satisfy their basic needs (day to day needs) such as :- Food , shelter and water
I. Ancient period :- It again divided in to three

i. Paleolithic Age (30000 to 10000 B C )
ii. Neolithic Age (10000 to 3000 B C)
iii. Between 3000 and 1200 B C

i. Paleolithic Age

Here people travelled for day to day survival. People were travelled to meet their basic needs .Gradually, when the religion were explored, fire was discovered, tools were made , animals used for their transportation and people were able to settle down in shelters and this resulted increased activity in travel .
ii. Neolithic Age

Several innovations in the field of transport changed the very nature of travel. The discovery of wheel (invention of the wheel goes to Sumerians of Babylonia), money and sailing vessels (Built in Egypt around 4000 B.C) increased trade and transport. Roads and rest houses were built for traders and travelers.

iii. Between 3000 -12000 B C
Many explores took to exploring the seas, voyages were undertaken for trade. History shows that great civilizations were settle down in the banks of river .For eg:- Egyptians utilized the potential of Nile river for transporting gaint stones to built pyramids. Many travelers visited Egypt during during that peoide to see the great architectural wonders.
II. Traveling In the middle ages
Trade, commerce and search for knowledge were the primary motive of travel in the middle age .Prehistoric time witnessed the emergence of trade and commerce but in the Middle Ages trade and commerce expanded and resulted increase in travel. There are many reference to great explores who spent many years of their lives in search of knowledge
  The famous explores like Marco Polo and King Alexander the Greate shared their travel
Experience.  Alexander the Great stated that India had well maintained roads lined with     shady trees and people travelled in chariots, bullock cart, horse, camel, elephants etc..
I. The Roman Empire
The Romans were known for not just their well developed road but also their transport networks ( for eg- there is an ancient say itself that all roads lead to Rome).The availability of travel literature and road maps encourage common people to travel. The early form of pleasure travel was also existed in Rome; that is medical bath, spas and sea side resort .

The fall of Roman Empire not only affected trade and commerce but also tourism industry and pleasure travel. People were feared to travel in Dark Age however which comes to an end when people began to travel to their holy land. Early churches offered food to travelers and even temporary lodging facilities.
III.     The Grand Tour and the Renaissance (Meaning - Revitalize)
  The renaissance marked the next important stage in the history of travel. the reappearance of tourism in Europe follows the Italian renaissance and development of a full scale urban system . By the end of 15th century Italy was Europe’s economic and cultural capital. The wars and political disrupts made Italy declined materially but still Italy was the “intellectual capital of Europe “. Nobel men were sent to complete their education in France and Italy.
The political and economical shift in the Europe made people to travel and learn new things .It also help tourist to understand different culture, so that Romans visited Greece and English visited Italy etc…! 18th century is conventionally considered the golden age of Grand Tour, lot of common people (Bourgeoisie) travelled and Grand tour was not an aristocratic phenomena .Grand tour had been invaded ( found ) by the common people . The common people where poets, authors, and intellectuals who visited Italy and other nearby countries to broaden their knowledge and learn new arts and crafts. The grand tourists paved the way for the popular tourism of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Points to be noticed
a) History divided in to three

 Ancient period
 Traveling in middle age
 Grand Tour and Renaissance

I. Ancient period :-
            Divided in to three:-
1. Paleolithic Age:- People travelled to satisfy basic needs  (food, shelter, water )
2. Neolithic Age :- Wheel, money ,trading vessels, road and rest houses
3. Between 300 and 1200 B C:-Many travelers visited , sea voyages, trade, commerce ,pilgrimages Eg:- Egypt, Nile and pyramid

II. Traveling in the middle Age :- Trade, commerce, search for knowledge , Marco polo , King Alexander and India visit , Roads & travel maps, medical bath and spas for pleasure travel, fall of Roman empire and dark age, spread of religion especially Christianity
III. Grand Tour and Renaissance :-Italy was cultural hub , the political war affect  Italian Renaissance,17th and 18th century several scholars visited  Italy ( grand tour), travel for studying later it becomes travel for pleasure .

Travelling during Industrial age
The second half of the 19th century, in fact witnessed the growth of travel as a result of development in industrial revolution. Travel before the industrial age was more of an religious practices, trading and need to learn. Only very few people indulge in tourism for pleasure.
Industrial revolution brought with it many economic and social reforms .The migration from rural places to urban increased and emergence of working class people  made cities overcrowded .Soon the population increased and there was an urgent need to take short breaks from city life .
The vast development in the industrial revolution were also a reason for people to travel .The development such as fast roads, transport systems such as railways, motor cars etc.. help people to reach from one place to another
 2 nd half of 19the century
 Migration from rural place to urban
 Overcrowding and population
 Rest and relaxation
 Roads , railway and improvement of infrastructural development

Tourism in 20th century
The twentieth century saw a significant growth in tourism, particularly in Europe , where there was an emergence of the middle class who would frequently travel for pleasure or business. Time and disposable income where the main motivators that make people to travel .The concept of paid holidays, advance improvement in technology and innovation also help positively to undertake travel .The introduction of luxurious hotels, pull man coaches and luxury train like the “Blue Riband” and “orient Express” provided the required encouragement to people to travel for pleasure.
World War
After World War 1, there was considerable technological development in transport systems. The Introduction of Airplane and motor car revolutionized the manner in which people travelled. In this era goods roads, highways and bridges were built to connect geographical areas which were once apart or not easily accessible.
The world war two adversely effected tourism industry and travel but post world war two resulted with a rapid growth in tourism industry. The introduction of jet in 1958 and advance development in aviation industry made it affordable to travel by air. The specialties of air travel where speed , comfort and efficiency. Expansion of air travel coupled with the introduction of the concept packaged tour  and that led to mass tourism.
Tourism policies and procedures were introduced and more and more people from different parts of the world began participating in tourism and travelling. In 1974 tourism industry received a set back because of the economic crisis .Tourism industry handled the set back effectively after 1976, the number of tourist travelled where increased.
After world war several tourism organizations where formed to facilitate travel like World Tourism Organization, International air transport association etc..
 Emergence of middle class
 More disposable income and time
 Introduction of luxury transportation
 Post World war 1-good roads , bridges ,motor car and air travel
 Post World war 2-increased in travel and mass tourism ,Introduction of jet (speed, comfort and efficiency in travel
 Packaged tour increased tourism flow in air travel
 1974 great depression negatively affected tourism but tourism successfully survived within a short period
 Emergence of tourism organizations WTO, IATA etc..

Tourism In Independent India

The main agenda of the Indian government after independence has been the economic and industrial growth of nation. The first straight forward effort to promote tourism in India was made in 1945,when a committee was set up by the Government of India  under the  chairmanship of  Sir John Sargeant. Based on the recommendation of Jha commetty In 1949 tourism created a small department under shipping and transportation ministry. In 1951 four field office where started in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai .India set up separate department of tourism 1956 . Government of India appointed an ad-hoc committee on tourism in March 1963 to investigate the reasons for decline in tourist arrivals in  1962  L.K.Jha Committee.

There was no found allotted for tourism form the first five year plan (51-56), second five year plan allotted 3.36 cores for tourism developments in the country .Third Five year plan make some changes in tourism Gave importance to destination development, adventure tourism activity , winter sports complex at Gulmarg in Kashmir and ITDC (Indian tourism Development corporation ) start functioning from 1966 . 1963 L.K jha committees recommendation also helps to improve tourism in India during that period. In 1967 First tourism ministry was formed in the name of ‘ministry of tourism and civil aviation’.

The sixth five year plan (1980-1985) gave tourism in India its desired place of importance .The government announced national policy on tourism in 1982.

1. The first tourism policy (1982)

The first initiative from Indian government came as late as the 1980s .India hosted the Asian games in 1982 and it finally encouraged the government to develop adequate and quality accommodation and infrastructure. The tourism policy of 1982 was based on development of tourism circuits, involving the place of interest and thematically. However these circuits were based on the concept ‘Golden Triangle’ of Delhi-Agra-Jaipur, and Bombay – Goa Attractions, Should be overemphasized.

The circuits came to be developed around the construction of rental hotel in rural and underdeveloped areas of country, infrastructure for which were to be developed by the government .The first national committee on tourism was set up in 1988.The tourism finance corporation established to gave financial assistance to tourism sector in the year 1989

(Points to be noticed :- 1982 first national policy announced, India hosted Asian Games , Circle tourism promoted ,circle tourism developed tsm in that circle ,national tsm committee 1988 )

2. Tourism Development in the 1990

In the 1980, People become more interested in tourism, leading to the reorganization of the tourism sector as an industry. The Tourism Forecasting Council was established in 1997. Private investors were invited to participate in the development programmes. The national Tourism Action plan of 1997 was introduced to facilitate the growth and development of the industry in the country. Marketing and advertising also formed important component of the tourism development.

The plan invited much criticism such as unrealistic, unfeasible and the funds granted for the development of the plan were also inadequate. India opened its markets to international outsourcing and trade in the early 1990s.The economic growth of India has also contributed to the enhanced tourist traffic (globalization).

In 1990s the government realized the need to develop domestic tourism and so it included in the national action plan in 1997. The action plan gave emphasis on the development of special tourism areas. At present, an ever growing group of Indian tourists travels around the country for rather prosaic, leisure and sightseeing-related reasons. This new trend is underscored by the emergence of Indian travel magazines and the growing explicit attention for domestic tourist destinations in leading newspapers.
Following were some of the main objectives of the National Action Plan of 1992:
I. Socio-economic development of the area.
II. Increase in the employment opportunities.
III. Preservation of national heritage and environment.
IV. Optimization of foreign exchange earnings through international tourism.
V. Increase in India’s share of world tourism.

(Points to be noticed: -   Tourism forecasting council – 1997, national tourism action plan 1997, plan invited much criticism like absence of fund and unrealistic, Govt realized need of domestic and development of special tourism areas and marketing of tourism products, write down some objectives of national action plan)

3. The new Tourism policy (2002)

 The action plan 1997 finally become a tourism policy in 2002 .It became an official joint undertaking by both central and state governments. It was developed by the central government and was almost similar to the earlier one. It tried to establish the contribution and importance of tourism to national development .The new tourism policy stressed in the points like: - Optimal use of countries tourism resources, employment to women, disabled and young people. Special thrust should be imparted to rural tourism and tourism in small settlements , where sizable saaets of our cultural and natural wealth exist.

 It was also meant to spread understanding, peace, stability and national unity. The policy is based on the concept that tourism could lead to , generate employment to larger section of society .In a nutshell, the intention behind the policy is to increase the number of tourists both domestic and global the government also has plans to enhance infrastructural development considerably . Sustainability should serve as a guiding star for the new policy. The development and management strategies should be so worked as to ensure that tourism largely acts as a smokeless industry and its ecological footprint remains as soft as possible. Effective linkages and close coordination should be established with such departments as civil aviation, Environment, forest, railways etc...

(Action plan 1997 became tourism policy 2002,  – optimal use of tsm resources, employment to woman, disabled youth, spread peace - stability -and -national unity , Generate employment to larger section of society , increase tst traffic enhance infrastructural development, write down some points from below).  

 Broadly the policy paper attempts to:

• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• The direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth.
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the growing global travel, trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;
• Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst; Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies; and
• Ensure that the tourist to India gets physically rejuvenated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually eminent and “feel India from within”.

The policy takes into consideration seven keys that will provide the push to tourism development . These are :

• Swagat (welcome)
• Soochna (information)

• Suvidha (facilitation)
• Suraksha(safety)
• Sahyog(cooperation)
• Samrachana (infrastructure development)
• Safai(cleanliness)

Development of Tourism Organizations
For any industry or discipline to develop, an organization is an essential pre requisite as it plays a vital role in its proper planning, development and growth. Various international organizations in the field of tourism are operating today; some of these organizations are specifically concerned with the development and promotion of tourism at the international level while others deal with the development and promotion of tourism in a particular region.
The history of cooperative Endeavour in tourism can be traced back to the year 1908. Three countries –France, Spain and Portugal felt the need of pooling (sharing) their resources in the interest of promoting tourism and founded the Franco Hispano Portuguese Federation of tourist association. In initial stages, especially after world war 1st, many more countries also realized the importance of working with each other to promote tourism .This lead to the formation of the International Union Official Organization for Tourist Propaganda in 1924 .The first congress of the organizations was held at Hague, Holland and was attended by delegates from national tourism organizations of fourteen European countries.
In the year 1946, the representatives of various national tourist organizations met in London and the following year, in 1947, the International Union of Official Travel organization (IUOTO) was founded. The organization represented over one hundred national tourist offices of various countries of various countries as full member and about eighty –eight national and international organizations of both public and privet sector as associate members. The swift expansion of travel had created the need for a world body able to deal with tourism problems at the government level and this led to the transformation of IUOTO into WTO.

World Tourism Organization
The world tourism organization, an inter-governmental technical body dealing with all aspects of tourism began its legal existence on January 2, 1975.It come in to existence as a result of the transformation of IUOTO. The headquarters of the organization were set up in Madrid (Spain) in January 1976.It addresses the issues concerning tourism .It issues ranking and is concerned with the granting; collection of statistics on global tourism. It represents public sector tourism departments of most countries across the globe and publishes data comparing the growth and flow of international tourism .It promote development of sustainable, responsible and globally accessible tourism with special emphasis on developing and under developed countries.
It endorses implementation of the global code of ethics for tourism to ensure that member countries through specific tourist destinations and infrastructure optimize the positive social, cultural and economic impacts of tourism, while lowering its negative environmental and social effects.  The objectives of the UNWTO are to promote and develop sustainable tourism so as to contribute to economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity and universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. In pursuing these aims, UNWTO pays particular attention to the interests of developing countries in the field of tourism. Tourism development in developing countries and underdeveloped countries are also an important objective of WTO.

UNWTO’s membership includes 156 countries, 6 territories and over 400 affiliate members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Its headquarters are located in Madrid, Spain
2010–present — Taleb Rifai

Members fall in to three categories :-
1. Full member
2. Associate member
3. Affiliate member

1. Full member:-All the sovereign states.

2. Associate member:- Territories or groups of territories not responsible for their external relations but whose membership is approved by the state assuming responsibility for their external relations.

3. Affiliate Members:- Those international bodies, both inter-governmental and nongovernmental concerned with specialized interests in tourism, as well as commercial and non commercial bodies and associations whose activities are related to the aims of WTO or fall within its competence

i. The fundamental aim of the organization shall be the contracting and development of tourism with a view to contributing to economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity and universal respect for, and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction to either race, sex, language or religion. The organization shall take appropriate action to attain this objective.
ii. In pursing this aim, the organization shall pay particular attention to the interests of the developing countries in the field of tourism.
iii. In order to establish its central role in the field of tourism the organization shall establish and maintain effective collaboration with the appropriate organs of the United Nations and its specialized agencies.

i. Constant review of tourism trends , developments and exercising vigilance over change in world economic and social conditions affecting tourism ,market fluctuations and maintenance of standard within the tourism sector .
ii. Clearing house for all available information on international and domestic tourism including statistical data, legislation and regulations, facilities and special events.
iii. Systematic collection, analysis and dissemination of data on various aspects of tourism.
iv. Collecting legislative texts, regulations and documentation on all aspects of travel.
v. Conducting research studies covering tourism markets, plant and enterprises, physical planning and area development, promotion and marketing, economic analysis and financing techniques etc.
vi. Regular supply of studies as well as updated information on trends in the various fields of tourism to its members.
vii. Fostering the adoption of measures in cooperation with competent specialized bodies regarding simplifying frontier formalities and removing barriers to the free movement of people
viii. Organizing and convening international conferences ,seminar, workshops, round table and technical meeting on all aspect of tourism
ix. Preparation of draft international agreements on tourism
x. Examining vocational training programmes with a view to contributing to the establishment of suitable teaching programmes tailored to specific needs, especially in the developing countries.
(    points: 1.Reviewing tourism trends ,economic and social condition ,market fluctuation to maintain a standard in tourism
2. Information centre’s which provide bulletins and technical manuals etc…
3. Systematic collection, analysis and distribution of data
4. Collecting and distributing legal aspect of travel in different region
5. Conducting research on tourism planning and marketing
6. Supply of updated tourism information to its member countries
7. Simplifying frontier formalities and removing barriers of tourism and travel
8. Organizing international seminar , workshop and conventions etc
9. Preparation of draft international agreement of tourism regarding guidance and principle
10. Examination of vocational training programmes and developments regarding tourism and travel. )

WTO functioning

A. General Assembly :-

The General Assembly is the principal gathering of the World Tourism Organization. It meets every two years to approve the budget and programme of work and to debate topics of vital importance to the tourism sector. Every four years it elects a Secretary-General. The General Assembly is composed of full members and associate members. Affiliate members and representatives of other international organizations participate as observers
(Supreme authority – meets every two year –Members are full and associate members and observer is affiliate member)
B. Executive council
The Executive Council is UNWTO's governing board, responsible for ensuring that the Organization carries out its work and adheres to its budget. It meets at least twice a year and is composed of members elected by the General Assembly in a ratio of one for every five full members.
( meets 2 year, governing body of WTO , one member for every five full member of general assembly )
C. Secretariat
It consists of secretary general and staff. The general secretary is responsible for carrying out the general policy and work programme of the organization in accordance with the direction of the general assembly and executive council.

The Secretariat is led by Secretary-General Taleb Rifai of Jordan, who supervises about 110 full-time staff at UNWTO's Madrid headquarters.

PATA - Pacific Asia Travel Association
Pacific Asia Travel association was founded in the year 1951 as a nonprofit corporation to stimulate interest in the pacific region as a vacation land, develop, promote and facilitate travel to and among the many pacific destinations. PATA was founded by Lorrin P. Thurston a leading newspaper publisher in Honolulu. PATAs first conference was held in January 1952 in Honolulu and its headquarters were established in San Francisco USA in 1953.PATAs first Asian offices were opened in Manila, Philippines in 1976.
As a nonprofit organization PATA was set up with objective of developing, promoting and facilitating travel to and with in pacific area and south East Asian region. The underlying philosophy of PATA is that the entire travel industry must work together to develop an ever increasing flow of pleasure travel from which each member will derive a fair share of total business. PATA also focused on reducing travel formalities and filling accommodation gap etc…PATA introduced chapter concept in the year 1960, the primary purpose of the chapter is conduct continuing education programme .
Functions of PATA
 Conducting Pacific travel conference and work shop each year (in the first month of each year )
 Conduct travel research, marketing, education workshop and training programmes, promotion activities, advertising tourism etc…
 Assisting upcoming destination to develop their infrastructural facilities and providing expertise advise in tourism.
PATAs major effort goes for promotion
 Pacific Travel news
 Hotel Directory and travel Guide
 Pacific Asia destination hand book
Finance of the Association
The administration and programmes of the association are finance by way of membership dues and marketing assessments paid by all members. The amount dues, however, varies with the category of membership. The marketing assessments of government and carriers are calculated in accordance with Stanford research institute formula.
In addition to membership dues and the marketing assessment amounts, there are additional revenues which come from allied and associate members, a portion of which is applied to various marketing programmes.
International Air Transport Association (IATA)
IATA was set up in April 1945 in Havana, Cuba. It facilitates Inter-airline Corporation for reliable, safe and economical air travel to benefit global consumers. A need for the worldwide regulation of air traffic including co-coordinating international air fares and rates was felt and consequently an international convention was called by president Franklin D Roosevelt of the United State of America at Chicago from November 1 to December 7, 1944.The convention constituted two permanent bodies, namely the International Air Transportation Association (IATA) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
The IATA started at a small scale and grew slowly. It was limited to Europe when Pan American becomes a member .The IATA is a voluntary, non political and democratic organization. Membership is open to any operating company which has been licensed to provide scheduled air service .Airlines engaged directly in international operations are active members, while domestic member’s airlines are associate members. The Basic source of authority in IATA is the annual general meeting in which all active members have an equal vote.
IATA is the global representative of the international air transport industry. There are around 260 members, representing nearly 95% of international schedule air traffic. IATA’s  two head offices located : one in Geneva ,Switzerland and another in Montreal , Canada .In the early 1970s as a result of increasing fare calculation complexities and recognizing the need of globally standardized travel agent training ,IATA introduced the beginnings of today’s travel and tourism programme .
 To promote regular , safe and cheep air transport to benefit international consumers, foster (widen ) air trade and study the problems concerned
 To facilitate joint ventures between air transport companies directly or indirectly providing global air transport.
 To work with the international civil aviation organization and other international bodies
IATA had to provide to provide technical support during early years recognizing that reliability and safety were of primary importance to airline. IATA provides airline input to ICAO  in the beginning stage to those countries who unable to provide such service .IATA also provided support to the international telecommunications union , the world metrological Organization and the international Organization for Standardization . IATA’s major purpose is to ensure that all airline traffic anywhere in the world moves with the greatest possible speed, safety and security etc...
IATA organized the first international Traffic conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1947 which decided the matters related to i) Fare construction rules for multi sector trips ii)ticket and airway bill design , iii) revenue sharing , iv)Baggage allowance , v) agency appointment procedure or rule
IATA s Multilateral interline Traffic Agreement allows passengers to use single ticket and air way bill when they travel in two or more different airlines. The passenger and cargo services conference conducted by IATA states that there should be standard format for tickets and airway bills.
i. The global planning of international timetables
ii. The standardization of the inter – company communication and reservation system
iii. International coordination of telecommunication network and communication systems
iv. The single formula for ticket and airway bills
v. The training of travel and freight agents
vi. The examination and solving of the problems raised by tourism, the flow of passenger and goods at airports and to establish procedure and technical norms..
Points to be noticed
Set up in 1945 Havana –   objective: international airline co operation, reliable, safe and economical air travel to benefit global consumers  -  IATA starts in small scale later it expand slowly  -  1944 Chicago convention constituted two international bodies , IATA and ICAO – IATA is a voluntary ,non political and open membership org –members of IATA active and associate  members (Active member:- international airline, Associate member :-domestic Airline )- Head office in Geneva (Switzerland) Montreal (Canada)  -  AIMS –technical assistance and airline input provided by IATA to ICAO – IATA supports other orgs such as international telecommunication org , metrological org , standardization org etc.. – First traffic convention and specialties (study minimum 3 or 4 specialties of convention form above details  )  - Multilateral interline Traffic Agreement , passenger and cargo services conference –service provided by IATA ( Study 3 or 4 points minimum )
The Chicago convention ended up with the suggestion of forming ICAO in 1944 to play as a central organization in the field of aviation sector. ICAO was formally established in 1947 april 4 as a specialized agency of United Nations. ICAO has a membership of over 189 governments joined for the common purpose of promoting civil aviation on a global scale. The headquarters of the organization are located at Montreal, Canada. ICAO was formed as a mean to secure international co-operation and the highest degree of uniformity in regulations and standards, procedures and organization regarding civil aviation matters.
  Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world
 Encourage the art of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purpose
 Encourage the development of airways, airports and navigation facilities for international civil aviation
 Meet the needs of people of the world for safe , regular, efficient , economical air transport
 Prevent economic waste caused by unhealthy competition
 Ensure the right of contracting countries are fully respected and that every contracting country has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines
 Avoid discriminating between contracting countries
 Promote safety of flight in international (operations )air navigation

    OR (objectives)

 Standardization: - There should be international standards, recommended practices in aviation industries such as common law and procedure in air space operation, licensing of personnel, air traffic services , aeronautical telecommunications, aircraft noise and emission level, air accident investigation and transport of dangerous goods etc…
 CNS/ATM ( Communication Navigation Surveillance / Air Traffic Management)  :-
ICAO introduced this concept to help satellite based future communications and air traffic management
 Regional planning: - Regional meeting are conducted at regular period and intervals to help airline operation worldwide. ICAO classifies the entire world in to 9 geographical region
 Facilitation:-Ensure facilities in aircraft , airport and meet the needs of increasing passengers  and  minimize procedural formalities etc..
 Economics:- ensure economical travel is another objective of ICAO , reduce unhealthy competition in the field of aviation
 Technical co – operation for development  : Help developing and underdeveloped countries to improve their technological systems and ensure them enhanced security procedure at airport
 Law: - ICAO has helped develop a international code of contact and law to address specific issues.

Organizational Structure
The ICAO consists of an assembly, a council and a secretariat
 Assembly: - Constituted by representatives from the members state, holds meeting once in three years in order to review and formulate policies.
 Council: - The council is chosen by the assembly and its members hold office for three years. It is governing body of ICAO .Members include ; key providers of air transport  ,representatives of all global region ,providers of facilities for air navigation
 Secretariat: includes Staff employed and secretary - General
The Advisory groups who help and give their advices to ICAO functionaries are:-
I. The Technical Advisory Group (TAG )

This group provide all technical advises to ICAO and also concentrated on the development of Machine Readable Travel Document (MRTD ) etc .This group also associated with IATA, INTERPOL (international criminal police organization  ) , ISO (International organization for standardization ).

II. The New technological Working Group :

This Group does research and analysis and report new technologies to use, at present  it focused more on document security by enabling unique technological features in it such as Bar code , chips, optical memory storage and biometric identity .
(Points to be noted :-1944 Chicago convention –ICAO , Formally Est. 1947 – specialized agency of UN – HO Montreal Canada – formed as a mean to secure international co operation and uniformity in regulations and procedures regarding civil aviation- write down objectives from the given two – mention about org structure and advisory group )
UFTAA – United Federation of Travel Agents Association
The united Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTAA) was evolved from the Universal Federation of Travel Agents Association of Rome, Italy on November 22 and 1966. UFTAA originated from Brussels, established its general secretariat in Monaco .UFTAA represents national travel agents and tour operation association in significant number of countries. It remains the most prominent body representing the interests of travel agents worldwide and enjoys consultative status with UN (United Nations).
 UFTAA began functioning as a confederation on January 1, 2003 and is a nonprofit organization of global scope with members of various regional federations. UFTAA is affiliated by WTO and its Business Council (WTOBC).IT provides all assistance globally for tour operators and travel agents through consultation with international organizations such as IATA, International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA) , International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), WTO etc…
Its membership also includes a large group of travel partners including major airlines , hotels, tourism boards, shipping companies , car rental companies and many other operators allied to the industry . UFTAA protects the right of travel agents and its customers .
UFTAAs mission is to offer a global platform to address the problems and issues concerning the international travel industry.
 To bring together and consolidate the travel agents federations, National Associations and Push its members interests in the international arena.
 To represent members activity at international , governmental level
 To adopt measures to help provide consumers comfortable travel
 To investigate and inform centre in favor of its members and help technological development
 To offer arbitration in resolving conflicts
 To organize global congresses and other meetings of travel agents to facilitate exchange of knowledge
 Through its education UFTAA assist travel agents to become better qualified
(emerged from Universal federation Rome Italy in 1966 – est. in 1989 Brussels –  HO in Monaco – represents travel agents and tour operators worldwide –consultative status with UN – becomes confederation on January 1, 2003- provide assistance with the help of other organizations –membership includes all stakeholders – Mission (study 4 points minimum )

TAAI – The Travel Agents Association of India
The travel agents association of India (TAAI) was set up in late 1951 by 12 travel agents who felt the need for an association to form laws and organize the industry .Its main aim was to defend the interests of travel agents , promote growth and development and prevent exploitation of travelers by operators .Over the years its membership has gone up to roughly 2500 members comprising active , associate, allied , government and nonresident .TAAI is a signatory to MOUs with Travel Agents Associations across the globe .
 TAAI is aware of the needs of consumers and ensure a high standard of ethical values within the industry
 It develops the travel and tourism industry in the country through continues improvements in service to meet the needs of both Indian and foreign tourist
 It promote co operation among various sections of the industry
 It maintain , stimulate and promote the growth of travel and tourism industry
 It educate members through seminars, meeting  and conventions and also organize international events such as travel mart to attract international tourist
 It encourages cooperation among the members, this will result in healthy competition
 Executing policies and procedures of UFTAA in India

(Est. in 1951 –protect the interest of travel agents and tour operators – around 2500 members – MOU with international association of travel agents – aims – activities)

Growth of Tourism: Causes and Factors
Tourists today are influenced by trends in tourism accordingly decide their place of visit. People’s attitude towards travel and leisure have changed .Unlike earlier days when travel and luxury was just limited to the affluent, today it has become a part of life for many middle class people too
Tourists are keen to explore experiment and spend. They have become more liberal about travel. They have unlimited choices to choose from. Globalization has played a significant role and people are willing to travel to distant countries just to see and experience exotic locales (locations).
Like in other industries, technology plays a very important role in the development of tourism industry too. Technological advancement in transportation and telecommunication is a boom for tourism. With the popularity of internet, more people are becoming aware of popular tourist destinations across the world. Tourists are able to learn the location the wish to visit, even find out information about the place of attraction, cuisines etc from the internet.

People now have more disposable income and better purchasing power .People of the developed countries are able to contently afford short and long annual holidays/vacations. The rich ones even maintain their own weekend homes or farm houses, which serve as quick getaways from their hectic lifestyle. Tourism is much more than a simple travel/sightseeing affair. Different people have different holiday motivators and ideas. With these journeys, the tourists are able to combine the pursuit of unusual hobbies, such as rock climbing, Para gliding, scuba diving and skiing etc…

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Type of Tourism - Election tourism

Election Tourism

First i am very happy to pronounce the term Election tourism.It may be a first time “term” used in tourism.Indian is one of the oldest and largest democracies in the world. Election always happen once in 5 years.Actually elections are really like a festival in India were you can see all brightest colors,glamour , hot debates ,face to face promotional wars  etc are worth to see.

Indian elections are really worth to see and participate.Peoples can see diversities of ideologies, and philosophies so its a good venue learn and understand all type of ideologies from its grass route. Tourist gets opportunity to meet national & local leaders and also gets a venue to chat with them and understand the basic problems.

Here i would like to put some of the key points to this type of tourism


*      It is the election of the largest and oldest democracy
*      Tourist can understand different type of ideology. Especially it  will gave a good opportunity for academicians to learn and experience
*      Political open intensive campaign with songs and dance on the last day of election ( normally it will be before two days of election) is really an eye catching attraction.
*      They can get an opportunity to meet and chat with local and national leader
*      Get a chance to meet the real India
*      Can experience Local culture & Local cuisine               
                  *      Good opportunity for researchers and academicians  

These are some of the key points were a election tourist can experience in India .So the term election tourism is a mixture of rural tourism+ education tourism + festival tourism.

Detailed description coming soon 

Friday, October 25, 2013


                                                                                                                                                         Prepared by Nikhil das.T
Amount charged from passenger for the service provided in airlines. Fare of an airline will be distinct from one another according to its class and service.
Airfares means - An airliner (also called a commercial transport or an Airplane) is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such planes are owned by airlines. The definition of an airliner can vary from country to country. Or in simple words we can says that the amount charged for traveling for aircraft.
The fare generally classified in to two they are followings:-
1.   Normal fare :-They are published airfares for travel between any two points this includes domestic fare and international fares. In simple words we can says that it is an amount charged from a normal adult passenger or we can says that it is an air fare for completely unrestricted ticket.
2.   Special fare:-Various airlines has introduced various types of special fares on their flight with the intension for promoting sales or for allowing concession to certain deserving category of people or as per government directive .These include promotional concession and also surcharged fares. It can be discounted and surcharged fare.
Normal fare, a rebate is allowed either for sales promotion or as a concession to certain category of people hence rebated fare are of two types. This can be two types’ promotional fare and concession fare
A. promotional fare
They are rebated fares introduced by Indian airlines for promotion of sale, generally against foreign exchange eg: Discovery Indian fares, India wonder fare, youth fare etc .it generally offered during lean and off season period in other words we can says that it is a discounted fare to increase volume.
B. concession fare
Rebated fares introduced by Indian Airline to allow concession to certain category of passenger, normally it is less expensive than adult fare. It is generally half of the full fare. Eg: student discount, cancer patient discount, Blind passenger discount etc..
ù  Armed force personals discounts-50% of concession.
ù  Blind persons Discounts-50% on basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  Cancer patient’s discounts -50% concessions on basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  Discover India fares-A fixed rate is charged.
ù  Ex-armed force personal-50%concession.
ù  Excursion fares with in the SAARC regions for individuals – 20% rebate on the international sector.
ù  Family fare
ù  Gurkha personal-60% of the normal rupee fare.
ù  Indian Airlines approves agents discount-A percentage discount is given only on the basis of revenue earned.
ù  India wonder fares
ù  Invalid passenger on structures-3 times the normal adult fare
ù  Ship crew discount for groups-Rebate off 44% on the normal international fare.
ù  South India Excursion Fare
ù  Teachers Discount
ù  Students concession
ù  Tour conductors discount-A rebate of 50% on the applicable fare for tour leader
ù  War disabled officers Discount-50%discount both basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  War window’s discount 50%
ù  Youth fare – A rebate of 25% on the VSD fare.

2. Surcharged fare
On the normal fare a surcharge thus making it higher than normal fare or it is a fixed percentage added to normal fare. It will normally three times than the normal fare. For Eg:- For bringing dead bodies ,structure fare case.
A. Child fare
          A child passenger is one who was reached his or her second birthday but not 12th birth day on the date of commencement of travel and will be charged 50% of the normal adult fare, on domestic sectors and 50% of normal adult fare on India sector .It is 67% of the normal adult fare on all south Asia – sub – continent except in Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Maldives and Srilanka.
B. Infant fare
          An infant is one who has not his or her 2nd birthday on the date of commencement of travel and not occupied an individual seat and charged 10% of the normal adult fare. An infant has to be accompanied by an adult passenger through out the journey.
          If there are two infants traveling to one another the second infant will be charge child fare .An infant who requires an individual seat also be charged child fare .the fare for child and infant are applicable to the age of the passenger on the date of commencement of travel and added for entire itinerary.
C. Miscellaneous Special fares
          Any other fare that does not fall under the above categories will be classified as special fare types. This includes Circle Fares, special event tour fares, and other fares with linked geographical application.
          The aim of reduced fares has been partly developmental and partly social, to the choice of groups to be encouraged.                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                        Prepared by Nikhil das.T

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Copied from Mohammed El Dief
Helwan University
Xavier Font
Leeds Metropolitan University

Environmental Management Practices

Environmental management is a broad term, covering a wide range of practices
aimed at reducing the negative environmental impacts generated by a firm’s
products and services. These practices can be generally classified into two categories:
“organizational or software” and “operational or hardware” (Alvarez Gil,
Burgos Jimenez, & Céspedes Lorente, 2001; González-Benito & González-Benito,
2006; Saha & Darnton, 2005).
Organizational practices are relevant to the development and implementation
of an environmental management system (EMS); a system that helps companies
identify and manage environmental issues and consequences related to their operations
in a holistic and consistent way (International Hotel & Restaurant Association
[IH&RA], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], & EUHOFA,
2001). The enforcement of environmental regulations is a highly complex issue
for the hotel sector and particularly in developing countries, which is highly
fragmented and mainly made up of small- to medium-sized independent operators
(Kasim & Scarlat, 2007; Rivera, 2002). For this reason, EMSs have been
recognized as viable voluntary mechanisms of managing the various environmental
issues associated with hotel operations that do not typically fall under
the control of any one monitoring agency (World Travel and Tourism Council,
International Hotel and Restaurant Association, International Federation of Tour
Operators, International Council of Cruise Lines, & UNEP, 2002).
EMSs originate in manufacturing with international and European environmental
standards arising as extensions of quality management procedures (Font
& Buckley, 2001) from which tourism specific adaptations have taken place
(Green Globe 21 during the 1990s being the most obvious). They reflect the extent
to which a company has modified its systems and structures to accommodate an
environmental program, which defines an environmental policy, establishes
environmental objectives and targets, evaluates the firm’s environmental performance
in a regular basis, delegates environmental responsibilities and provides
environmental training for employees. Such practices themselves do not directly
lessen the company’s environmental impact, but they set the mechanism to
improve environmental performance in a systematized and structured manner
(González-Benito & González-Benito, 2006).
Unlike organizational practices, operational practices can directly improve the
environmental performance of the company since they involve modifications in
both the production and operations systems. Whereas organizational practices
are similar across industries, operational practices are industry specific (Alvarez
Gil et al., 2001; Carmona-Moreno, Céspedes-Lorente, & De Burgos-Jimenez,
2004). Academics suggest that cutting operating costs and minimizing resource
consumption is the most convincing strategy to engage hotel management (see
Ayuso, 2006; Bohdanowicz, 2006; Kasim, 2007; Kirk, 1995; Tzschentke, Kirk,
& Lynch, 2004). Opportunities for cutting operational costs revolve around four
areas: water and wastewater management, energy management, solid waste reduction
and management, and green purchasing (IH&RA, UNEP, and EUHOFA,
2001). Water accounts for a substantial share of total utility bills in most hotels,

and nearly all of it is released as sewage, often without proper treatment (UNEP
DTIE, IH&RA, & EUHOFA, 2005). Therefore, water management is becoming
increasingly important for hoteliers as it can reduce not only the total cost of
actual water consumption but also the cost of wastewater treatment. For example,
Sandals Negril Beach Resort & Spa in Jamaica uses low-flush toilets and
urinals that use only 5.7 liters (1.5 gallons) of water per flush, aerators and lowflow
devices on taps, water-saving showerheads with a maximum flow of 9.5
liters (2.5 gallons) per minute, and ground care water-saving techniques to
reduce water loss from evaporation. In the 3 years from 1998 to 2000, the hotel
was able to reduce total water consumption per night by 28.6% (Sweeting &
Sweeting, 2003).

Energy savings equate to cost savings. Energy efficient equipment and practices
reduce hotel energy consumption by 20% or more (Ontario Restaurant,
Hotel and Motel Association, 2008). Many hotel corporations recognize these
opportunities and implement energy-efficient projects in lighting, space heating,
and cooling systems. For example, the 2001 Energy Star Award winner Hilton
Hotels Corporation was able to save nearly US$2.5 million in energy costs. This
was achieved by saving of nearly 43 million kWh of electricity and the prevention
of 65 million pounds of CO2 emissions in 2000 alone, the equivalent of
removing 6,450 cars from the road (http://www.energystar.gov).
Waste disposal costs money. Most hotels pay twice for the waste they generate—
first for product packaging (up to 35% of total waste by volume and 15%
by weight can be packaging) and then for waste disposal. Costs are rising rapidly
for waste collection, hauling and tipping fees (Cummings, 1997). Hotels
are well-placed to establish recycling facilities that can be used by others in the
local community. The Park Inn Hotel Berlin (formerly the Forum Hotel), for
example, not only handles its own waste but also that of eight other tenants in
the building, including cafes and fast food outlets, for a charge based on the
quantity. The hotel cut its own waste from a total of 840 tones in 1992 to 85 in

Product procurement policies can also affect the levels of waste a hotel generates,
and hence the costs associated through waste disposal. As major consumers
of goods and services, hotels have strong influence on the supply chain and can,
therefore, encourage suppliers to follow environmentally friendly standards. Thus,
establishing a supply environmental management process is a necessity for those
hotels opting to improve their environmental performance (Da Cunha Lemos &
Giacomucci, 2002). Scandic hotels provide a unique example. The company
decided to involve their supplier in its environmental program, driving them to
source products with low environmental impact. New suppliers were asked to
document their environmental policies and to sign the Scandic Supplier Declaration.
In many cases, Scandic was able to influence suppliers’ environmental behavior.
To reduce their environmental impacts, all hotels are encouraged to offer KRAVcertified
breakfasts (Bohdanowicz, Simanic, & Martinac, 2004).
Despite the growing popularity of EMPs in the hotel industry, the nature and
extent of such practices is, however, unknown in the Red Sea hotel sector.

 There is a need for background information on EMPs, and more important, on the factors
influencing their adoption. Such background will help practitioners and policy
makers design and develop appropriate programs aimed at maintaining and/or
improving the environmental quality of the region and thereby making the industry

more internationally competitive.