Thursday, April 10, 2014

Type of Tourism - Election tourism

Election Tourism

First i am very happy to pronounce the term Election tourism.It may be a first time “term” used in tourism.Indian is one of the oldest and largest democracies in the world. Election always happen once in 5 years.Actually elections are really like a festival in India were you can see all brightest colors,glamour , hot debates ,face to face promotional wars  etc are worth to see.

Indian elections are really worth to see and participate.Peoples can see diversities of ideologies, and philosophies so its a good venue learn and understand all type of ideologies from its grass route. Tourist gets opportunity to meet national & local leaders and also gets a venue to chat with them and understand the basic problems.

Here i would like to put some of the key points to this type of tourism


*      It is the election of the largest and oldest democracy
*      Tourist can understand different type of ideology. Especially it  will gave a good opportunity for academicians to learn and experience
*      Political open intensive campaign with songs and dance on the last day of election ( normally it will be before two days of election) is really an eye catching attraction.
*      They can get an opportunity to meet and chat with local and national leader
*      Get a chance to meet the real India
*      Can experience Local culture & Local cuisine               
                  *      Good opportunity for researchers and academicians  

These are some of the key points were a election tourist can experience in India .So the term election tourism is a mixture of rural tourism+ education tourism + festival tourism.

Detailed description coming soon 

Friday, October 25, 2013


                                                                                                                                                         Prepared by Nikhil das.T
Amount charged from passenger for the service provided in airlines. Fare of an airline will be distinct from one another according to its class and service.
Airfares means - An airliner (also called a commercial transport or an Airplane) is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such planes are owned by airlines. The definition of an airliner can vary from country to country. Or in simple words we can says that the amount charged for traveling for aircraft.
The fare generally classified in to two they are followings:-
1.   Normal fare :-They are published airfares for travel between any two points this includes domestic fare and international fares. In simple words we can says that it is an amount charged from a normal adult passenger or we can says that it is an air fare for completely unrestricted ticket.
2.   Special fare:-Various airlines has introduced various types of special fares on their flight with the intension for promoting sales or for allowing concession to certain deserving category of people or as per government directive .These include promotional concession and also surcharged fares. It can be discounted and surcharged fare.
Normal fare, a rebate is allowed either for sales promotion or as a concession to certain category of people hence rebated fare are of two types. This can be two types’ promotional fare and concession fare
A. promotional fare
They are rebated fares introduced by Indian airlines for promotion of sale, generally against foreign exchange eg: Discovery Indian fares, India wonder fare, youth fare etc .it generally offered during lean and off season period in other words we can says that it is a discounted fare to increase volume.
B. concession fare
Rebated fares introduced by Indian Airline to allow concession to certain category of passenger, normally it is less expensive than adult fare. It is generally half of the full fare. Eg: student discount, cancer patient discount, Blind passenger discount etc..
ù  Armed force personals discounts-50% of concession.
ù  Blind persons Discounts-50% on basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  Cancer patient’s discounts -50% concessions on basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  Discover India fares-A fixed rate is charged.
ù  Ex-armed force personal-50%concession.
ù  Excursion fares with in the SAARC regions for individuals – 20% rebate on the international sector.
ù  Family fare
ù  Gurkha personal-60% of the normal rupee fare.
ù  Indian Airlines approves agents discount-A percentage discount is given only on the basis of revenue earned.
ù  India wonder fares
ù  Invalid passenger on structures-3 times the normal adult fare
ù  Ship crew discount for groups-Rebate off 44% on the normal international fare.
ù  South India Excursion Fare
ù  Teachers Discount
ù  Students concession
ù  Tour conductors discount-A rebate of 50% on the applicable fare for tour leader
ù  War disabled officers Discount-50%discount both basic fare and fuel surcharge.
ù  War window’s discount 50%
ù  Youth fare – A rebate of 25% on the VSD fare.

2. Surcharged fare
On the normal fare a surcharge thus making it higher than normal fare or it is a fixed percentage added to normal fare. It will normally three times than the normal fare. For Eg:- For bringing dead bodies ,structure fare case.
A. Child fare
          A child passenger is one who was reached his or her second birthday but not 12th birth day on the date of commencement of travel and will be charged 50% of the normal adult fare, on domestic sectors and 50% of normal adult fare on India sector .It is 67% of the normal adult fare on all south Asia – sub – continent except in Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Maldives and Srilanka.
B. Infant fare
          An infant is one who has not his or her 2nd birthday on the date of commencement of travel and not occupied an individual seat and charged 10% of the normal adult fare. An infant has to be accompanied by an adult passenger through out the journey.
          If there are two infants traveling to one another the second infant will be charge child fare .An infant who requires an individual seat also be charged child fare .the fare for child and infant are applicable to the age of the passenger on the date of commencement of travel and added for entire itinerary.
C. Miscellaneous Special fares
          Any other fare that does not fall under the above categories will be classified as special fare types. This includes Circle Fares, special event tour fares, and other fares with linked geographical application.
          The aim of reduced fares has been partly developmental and partly social, to the choice of groups to be encouraged.                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                        Prepared by Nikhil das.T

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Copied from Mohammed El Dief
Helwan University
Xavier Font
Leeds Metropolitan University

Environmental Management Practices

Environmental management is a broad term, covering a wide range of practices
aimed at reducing the negative environmental impacts generated by a firm’s
products and services. These practices can be generally classified into two categories:
“organizational or software” and “operational or hardware” (Alvarez Gil,
Burgos Jimenez, & Céspedes Lorente, 2001; González-Benito & González-Benito,
2006; Saha & Darnton, 2005).
Organizational practices are relevant to the development and implementation
of an environmental management system (EMS); a system that helps companies
identify and manage environmental issues and consequences related to their operations
in a holistic and consistent way (International Hotel & Restaurant Association
[IH&RA], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], & EUHOFA,
2001). The enforcement of environmental regulations is a highly complex issue
for the hotel sector and particularly in developing countries, which is highly
fragmented and mainly made up of small- to medium-sized independent operators
(Kasim & Scarlat, 2007; Rivera, 2002). For this reason, EMSs have been
recognized as viable voluntary mechanisms of managing the various environmental
issues associated with hotel operations that do not typically fall under
the control of any one monitoring agency (World Travel and Tourism Council,
International Hotel and Restaurant Association, International Federation of Tour
Operators, International Council of Cruise Lines, & UNEP, 2002).
EMSs originate in manufacturing with international and European environmental
standards arising as extensions of quality management procedures (Font
& Buckley, 2001) from which tourism specific adaptations have taken place
(Green Globe 21 during the 1990s being the most obvious). They reflect the extent
to which a company has modified its systems and structures to accommodate an
environmental program, which defines an environmental policy, establishes
environmental objectives and targets, evaluates the firm’s environmental performance
in a regular basis, delegates environmental responsibilities and provides
environmental training for employees. Such practices themselves do not directly
lessen the company’s environmental impact, but they set the mechanism to
improve environmental performance in a systematized and structured manner
(González-Benito & González-Benito, 2006).
Unlike organizational practices, operational practices can directly improve the
environmental performance of the company since they involve modifications in
both the production and operations systems. Whereas organizational practices
are similar across industries, operational practices are industry specific (Alvarez
Gil et al., 2001; Carmona-Moreno, Céspedes-Lorente, & De Burgos-Jimenez,
2004). Academics suggest that cutting operating costs and minimizing resource
consumption is the most convincing strategy to engage hotel management (see
Ayuso, 2006; Bohdanowicz, 2006; Kasim, 2007; Kirk, 1995; Tzschentke, Kirk,
& Lynch, 2004). Opportunities for cutting operational costs revolve around four
areas: water and wastewater management, energy management, solid waste reduction
and management, and green purchasing (IH&RA, UNEP, and EUHOFA,
2001). Water accounts for a substantial share of total utility bills in most hotels,

and nearly all of it is released as sewage, often without proper treatment (UNEP
DTIE, IH&RA, & EUHOFA, 2005). Therefore, water management is becoming
increasingly important for hoteliers as it can reduce not only the total cost of
actual water consumption but also the cost of wastewater treatment. For example,
Sandals Negril Beach Resort & Spa in Jamaica uses low-flush toilets and
urinals that use only 5.7 liters (1.5 gallons) of water per flush, aerators and lowflow
devices on taps, water-saving showerheads with a maximum flow of 9.5
liters (2.5 gallons) per minute, and ground care water-saving techniques to
reduce water loss from evaporation. In the 3 years from 1998 to 2000, the hotel
was able to reduce total water consumption per night by 28.6% (Sweeting &
Sweeting, 2003).

Energy savings equate to cost savings. Energy efficient equipment and practices
reduce hotel energy consumption by 20% or more (Ontario Restaurant,
Hotel and Motel Association, 2008). Many hotel corporations recognize these
opportunities and implement energy-efficient projects in lighting, space heating,
and cooling systems. For example, the 2001 Energy Star Award winner Hilton
Hotels Corporation was able to save nearly US$2.5 million in energy costs. This
was achieved by saving of nearly 43 million kWh of electricity and the prevention
of 65 million pounds of CO2 emissions in 2000 alone, the equivalent of
removing 6,450 cars from the road (
Waste disposal costs money. Most hotels pay twice for the waste they generate—
first for product packaging (up to 35% of total waste by volume and 15%
by weight can be packaging) and then for waste disposal. Costs are rising rapidly
for waste collection, hauling and tipping fees (Cummings, 1997). Hotels
are well-placed to establish recycling facilities that can be used by others in the
local community. The Park Inn Hotel Berlin (formerly the Forum Hotel), for
example, not only handles its own waste but also that of eight other tenants in
the building, including cafes and fast food outlets, for a charge based on the
quantity. The hotel cut its own waste from a total of 840 tones in 1992 to 85 in

Product procurement policies can also affect the levels of waste a hotel generates,
and hence the costs associated through waste disposal. As major consumers
of goods and services, hotels have strong influence on the supply chain and can,
therefore, encourage suppliers to follow environmentally friendly standards. Thus,
establishing a supply environmental management process is a necessity for those
hotels opting to improve their environmental performance (Da Cunha Lemos &
Giacomucci, 2002). Scandic hotels provide a unique example. The company
decided to involve their supplier in its environmental program, driving them to
source products with low environmental impact. New suppliers were asked to
document their environmental policies and to sign the Scandic Supplier Declaration.
In many cases, Scandic was able to influence suppliers’ environmental behavior.
To reduce their environmental impacts, all hotels are encouraged to offer KRAVcertified
breakfasts (Bohdanowicz, Simanic, & Martinac, 2004).
Despite the growing popularity of EMPs in the hotel industry, the nature and
extent of such practices is, however, unknown in the Red Sea hotel sector.

 There is a need for background information on EMPs, and more important, on the factors
influencing their adoption. Such background will help practitioners and policy
makers design and develop appropriate programs aimed at maintaining and/or
improving the environmental quality of the region and thereby making the industry

more internationally competitive.

Monday, October 21, 2013

Destination management Edakkal cave


Edakkal Cave is a fascinating tourist destination of Wayanad and unrevealed historical secret cave of India. Edakkal Cave in Wayanad has become a highly traffic tourist spot in district. It has two natural caves located at Ambalavayal in Ambukuthimala, 25km away from Kalpatta. Ambukuthimala stands in the southern edge of Western Ghats[1 wikipedia],. It was once ancient trade route which connect the mountain area of mysore and Malabar port. This Cave was discovered by Mr; Fred Fawcett a police official Malabar state in 1890.He wrote about the Edakkal cave in his famous book Indian Antiquary [2.].    In 1910, an armature British archaeologist rediscovered these carvings and brought it to the attention of general public.[3, DTPC Wayanad website]. 

According to the secotery of DTPC ,Edakkal Cave has become a tourist sport only after the establishment of DTPC at  wayanad in1990.  Edakkal Cave is presently managed by 3 commeties like; DTPC, Destination Management Council (headed by MLA), archeological department.

The name Edakkal means ‘a stone in between’, it is not a cave in the real sense, as stated in the India antiquary and quoted in the District Gazetter , Kozhikode , it is only a cleft about 96feet long and 22 feet wide in the rock. What makes it a cave to the ordinary observer is the fact that in the other portion of large cleft an enormous rock, weighing several tons, has fallen forming a roof over a large part of it. Inside the cave there are pictorial writing believed to be in the period of 4000 B.C to 1700 B.C. The stone age carving and drowing of Edakkal are rare and are the only known example from south India.It is not only their rairity , how ever that makes the Edakkal carving so important , but quality and quantity which also quite remarkable[4].

Inside the cave is on two levels the lower chamber measures about 18 ft long and 12ft width and 10 ft high and can be entered through an opening of 5*4 ft. The higher chamber  size are 96 feet long , 22 feet width and 18 feet height[5].

The Edakkal has many valuable curving of human and animal figures , tool used by human and animal figures tool used by human and of symbols are  yet to be  deciphered .the petroglyphs of cave are atleast three types and inhabited several times at different point o history .The oldest petroglyphs may date back yo over 800 years [6.Edakkal cave website]

Probable link to Indus valley civilization 

The Cave contains drawings that range over the period of 4000 B.C to 1700 B.C. Here the archeologists believed that youngest group of paintings have the more possible connection to the Indus valley civilization .The famous historian MR. Ragava Varrier of the Kerala state archaeology department a sign ‘a man with jar cup’. It is one of the most recognized symbols of Indus valley civilization. So it indicates that Indus valley civilization once spread in to the western Ghat area. This is a clear evidence for histrionic compare to the other once that got from Karnataka and Tamilnadu[7.].The western Ghat mountain rages start from where the Indus valley civilization ends so the chance of cultural diffusion is high. According to Mr. R Varrier ‘it is wrong to presume that Indus culture disappeared in to the thin air’. Iravathan Madhavan another well known archeologist says that the findings were significant and he called it as ‘major discovery in the History’.

The carvings

There are many human figures. A good number of the men have raised hair, of these the most elegant is the figure of a man whose left hand is unnaturally long and reaching his feet. He holds an angular object in his right hand and seems to be wearing a tight garment. Another man has a square-shaped head and spiral belly. Some of the figures are wearing masks and heavy garments. The figure of a woman is easily recognizable, her head is simplified into a cross, and another cross is marked on her hips, there is another, nicely drawn figure of a woman shown standing on a platform. The most eye-catching and somewhat formidable human figure is a life-size male shown standing in frontal pose with raised arms and hair. His face, probably masked, is at a height of the eye-level, thus it seems as if he is hindering the entry of outsiders. These are just some examples of the many forms and figures that decorate the Edakkal cave. As far as this will tell usl, they were probably created during the Neolithic period of the Late Stone Age and date from about 1000BC. In addition to the pictorial carvings, 6 ancient inscriptions have been identified of which two have been deciphered and 1 newly found Tamil-Brahmi letter’s meaning assumed as Brahma, the archeologist have not be confirmed its meaning yet.    [8. Edakkal cave yields one more Tamil-Brahmi inscription in Hindu CHENNAI, February 9, 2012 and]


Tourism has become an enviable part of development in all countries, Managing a destination or developing a destination for tourism is a complicated process. [1 tourism destination management by Mara Manente]The major problem faced by tourism destination are increasing possibility of the competitiveness, decreasing possibility of control and foresee and impact management. A successful destination management needs to based up on organize of local resource , coordination, management of local tourism production, creation and management of the value produced by the tourism system .

[2 according to Webster’s dictionary]The term destination means “The place set for the end journey”. i.e., a geographical area (location, a resort, a country etc) where travelers spend time away from home.According to the definition of WTO , “a tourism destination is an important place visited by tourist which represent the basic unit of analysis in tourism”. Here there are three factors analyzed; geographical, economical and physiological. It can be any size from country to village, starting from these definition many other definition also exit in sociology and marketing.

[3 Harold Koontz in his book named Management Theory of jungle]Management may be defined as “It is the art of getting things done through and with people in informally organized group” .Henry Fayol defined management is to forecast and plan, to organize , to command , to coordinate and to control. Management is said to be an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organisation. They Plan, Organise, Direct and Control all the essential activities of the organisation 

So destination management means planning, coordinating, organizing, influencing and monitoring a destination in an effective way. Managing a tourism destination is an important part of controlling tourism .[4 UNEP-DTIE - Sustainable Tourism Project]Destination management include land used planning business permit , zoning control , environment and other regulation , business association initiative and a host of other technique to shape the development and daily operation of tourism related activities. Destination management is complicated by the fact that a single, recognizable destination may include several municipalities, province or other government entities. Destination management help to achieve sustainability and competitiveness actively and positioning of a destination. The destination management emphasis is given on minimizing negative impact of tourism and preserving cultural and natural resource, at the same time optimizing overall contribution to economic development in host community.
Destination management emphasis on 3 points they are:-

  1. Protection of Asset:-Here asset may be an attraction, facility, nature or environment, destination management protect the asset and conserve it for future. This conservation of asset can not be seen in improper management place.
  2. Quality experience: - Tourist would like to see a destination as quality one. The quality includes economic, social, and environment quality.
  3. Sustainable Growth:-Sustainability means a long term growth, in case of tourism the resource is need to preserve for a long time .The most of destination has now practicing an unsustainable tourism practice. Destination management help to overcome this problem.

Effective destination management only possible through the perfect combination of attraction, service and infrastructure. Destination management may be we can says that it is management of attraction, service and infrastructure.

Attraction-Service-Infrastructure = Destination Managment

Integrated destination management recognizes a series of action are required and they are explained as under

  1. Creating product for specific market:-
The primary objective of destination management is creating a product for a specific or targeted group of people. The destination should be fit to face the market challenge and competition effectively. Product creation is a complicated task so there should be higher carefulness needed when we make a product.

2.Preserving Local resource:-Proper destination management help to preserve local resource and it reduces impact on environment Destination management also manage the resource of environment and also the activities through this we can manage the local resource.
3.Promoting sustainable development:-sustainability of destination can be achieved only through proper management of an attraction. So it not only conserves but also sustain the destination through proper planning and management.

4Gaining / Maintain competitiveness on the market:-The destination shall gain competitiveness through various management practices, the sustainability of a destination itself a great competitiveness compared to other destinations ( with out this management practice)
5. Ensure tourist quality of Visit:-Tourist quality of visit can be only possible by destination management and sustainable practices, tourist quality of visit help to a holistic development for the destination
6.Improving resident Quality of Life: Through sustainability  and tourist quality in destination improve the resident quality of life. The destination helps to improve all social, cultural, environmental and economical quality of life.

Benefit of Destination Management

1.Improved Destination Competitiveness :

Increased destination quality through management appeals increased visitation and yields. This make an advantage over other destination .Both public and private would like to invest in such destination.

  1. Increased Visitors Satisfaction:
Taylor made destination create increased visitors satisfaction and ensure repeated visitation. These customers may help itself  in the marketing and promotion of a destination.

  1. Economic, social and environmental sustainability

Tourism contribute economic, social and environmental sustainability , it minimize the negative impact affecting to a destination . Sustainability can be achieved by effectively managing these factors.

4. Effective Partnership

Destination management ensures strong partnership (community, industry,      Government, development agency).This helps to focuses on developing the full visitor experience from arrival through to departure .This minimize the choice conflict between tourism and other sectors. This will surly help to increase the image of tourism destination.

5. Countinous Improvement

DM is a continuous process it is not a once off ‘set and forget’ activity after the execution of continuous evaluation; it is done for improvement of destination and competitive advantage.

Destination Management and Visitors Management

D.M is a coordinated activity to plan, to control, to organize and influence a destination .D.M all these activity to achieve a common goal that is a viable and excellent destination. V.M technique is of the key strategy of D.M. D.M is highly concentrated on protection of asset, quality of experience and sustainable growth, proper visitors management is necessary for all this activities. DM aims to minimize negative impact, for successful implementation impact management V.M is necessary. VM can be either helps for the promotion of a destination neither it help to control over crowding of a destination. Visitors are inevitable part in all destination or we can says that visitors are the backboned of all destination so managing visitor is a complicated task in DM.

VM uses various technique and strategies to manage a destination soft and hard measures. DM concentrated on various aspects like infrastructural development, attraction and service management all these possible if there is an accurate plan of VM.V.M maybe take place soon after the implementation of a destination or long after the success of destination. Proper arrangement ,infrastructural and recreation facility not along make a destination a sustainable one with out V.M. V.M is key activity of V.M in the management of crowed in a destination.

Destination Management Organization

Destination management Organization are the organization responsible for the management and marketing of a destination and generally fall in to one of the following categories.

  • National Tourism Authorities or organization , Responsible for Management and Marketing of tourism at a national level.
  • Regional, Divisional or state DMO (RTO), responsible for the management or marketing of tourism in a geographic region.
  • Local DMO , responsible for the management or Marketing of tourism based on smaller geographic area or town/city
According to the world tourism foundation “ By 2012 , the DMO will be the dominated , most influential and most respected force behind the world largest industry .. or not exit at all”. DMO also includes members from hospitality related entities such as hotels , restaurant, tour operators, governmental odies and any individual or firm that directly or indirectly support tourism. The major problem faced by all NTA’s and NTO are sustainable tourism practice and paramount  of promotion, selling of tourism product over the internet. This has given rise to the need for new type of activity and new supporting technologies.

Role of DMO in Edakkal Cave

1.DTPC Wayanad

DTPC is the play maker in the tourism of Wayanad , The management and marketing of a destination is done with great concentration and effort. One of the key problem of Edakkal is to manage the mob in peak season (according to DTPC officers).DTPC has established a separate committee DMC (destination management committee) to solve this problem. The major activities and management are done by this committee with the involvement of  local officials .

Wayanad DTPC adopted a responsible tourism practice in 6th May 2007.The officials selected RT for vythiri cluster as a sample, then in 2011 they included the Ambalavayal sector considering the important need of responsible practice in Edakkal cave[Hindu newspaper dated on 7th may 2007, Great Indian tourism planners and consultant].

DTPC has the following Function

  • DTPC development and Maintain of selected tourist destination
  • Proper planning for development so as to retain high quality and environmental beauty.
  • Develop the destination in sustainable and eco friendly manner
  • New market and product development like tree house , house boat etc..
  • Extensive and aggressive marketing of a destination
  • Strengthening of local tourism
  • Reducing negative impact and enhancing positives
  • Provision of quality of service in the form of regulation and monitoring.
  • Sustainable development by conservation and preservation of cultural heritage
These are the some of the key function of DTPC [documentation of best practice adopted by state government in the promotion of tourism]

2.EDAKKAL DMC (Destination Management Committee)

Edakkal Destination management committee established in 2009 Nov ( According to DTPC officials), DTPC was taken charge to manage and maintain the destination before forming of Destination Management Committee. Destination management committee includes: - Chairman; - MLA, CEO;-DTPC Sectary. DMC concentrated on preservation and Conservation of Edakkal Cave, the operation of DMC should be in a sustainable way.DMC more concentrated on the beneficial diffusion to the local people in the destination. There were shuttle jeep service to Edakkal but due to the disturbance and pollution DMC asked to stop the shuttle service.

Structure of DMC

Chairman − MLA (Bathery Constituency)
CEO        − DTPC Sectary
Executive Members from Local Bodies :- Tourism department representative ,water authority representative, PWD Road representative ,PWD Building representative, Gramapanchayath Chairman and Vice Chairman .

The day today activity of Edakkal caves are managed by this committee .DMC has to consider the archeological department for any maintains and repair work. Tourism department allow found for the maintains work. All tourism activity under Edakkal decided and implemented according to the direction of this committee.

Visitors Management

Visitor’s management is a sub component of destination Management. VM is an integral part of sound tourism management. Visitors Management includes the development and implementation of rules and regulation with respect to visitors activity, which in turn provide s the guideline for visitors. On the other hand , it also aim to create enjoyable visitors experience in the hope that visitors will appreciate the value of the site . Environmental interpretation in a resource sensitive tourism destination is considered to be an effective visitor management strategy that helps to encourage visitors to adopt more appropriate behavior inoder to sustain the development of tourism.[effective interpretation at resource sensitive tourism destination by i-ling kuo].

Successful tourism development requires management attention to be focused up on not only tourism resource but also visitors.[cooper etal,1198].Visitors management can be divided in to two:- Activity visitors management and impact visitors management[protected area visitor impact management].Visitors management technique have to be use integrally in protected area tourism and heritage sites. VM normally implimet after a long time running a destination but to get the perfect result it should be implement along with the master plan.
Visitors management is defined as ‘an ongoing process to reconcile the potentially competing needs of the visitor, the place and the host community’.[tourism and the environment task force report, quoted in grant , 1994].It is feasible and achievable way of minimizing the negative impact of tourism activity , maximizing the benefits and harnessing the chance to use tourism as a positive environmental force. The objectives of Visitors management include[effective interpretation at resource sensitive tourism destination by i-ling kuo].

  • Enhancing the Visitors experience
  • Increasing Visitors awareness and understanding of destination culture and nature , as well as conservation and environmental issues.
  • Inducing civic responsibility and pride
  • Encouraging visitors to adopt more responsible behavior towards local culture and nature
  • Minimizing the negative impact up on resources resulting from visitor activities
  • Increasing the chance of repeat visit
  • Spreading the visitor flow over a wider geographical area
  • Promoting visit to less visited areas
  • Encouraging of season visit to minimize seasonality impact and reduce traffic and noise pollution during the peak
  •   Encouraging higher visitor expenditure

There are normally two approaches adopted to manage visitors, they are:-

Hard measures strategy and soft measures strategy. As name indicates hard measure include strict rules and regulation which is implemented in a destination to control the visitor’s number and their impact. Soft measure strategies are in a soft manner strategies which highly concentrated on interpretation and education. The table contains both hard and soft measures. [, tools for visitors managment]

Hard measures :- aimed at regulating visitor activities

Soft measures :- aimed at educating visitors
Restriction on access and certain activity

Provision of visitor information and environmental interpretation

Security site personal/ranges and police

Marketing of targeted visitors groups
Implementation of rules and regulation

Landscaping and planting

Discriminated entrance fee and parking fee charge

Resource hardening such as construction often board walks, reconstruction and repair of heritage building and monuments

Duplication of site

Modify timing of use

Modify location use with in problem area

The Current V.M practice of Edakkal

The current V.M practice of Edakkal will be more clear Through the following table and each are briefly explained as under. Edakkal is not following a strict V.M practice that is clear from the primary observation and through through the unstructured interview with officials and tour operators. Here each Hard and Soft strategy indicated with concerned Remark column, the remark writ as Low, Avg and High

Hard strategies of Edakkal
Low, Avg and High
Soft strategies of Edakkal
Low, Avg and High
Restriction on access and certain activity

Provision of visitor information and environmental interpretation

Security site personal/ranges and police

Marketing of targeted visitors groups
Implementation of rules and regulation

Landscaping and planting

Discriminated entrance fee and parking fee charge


Resource hardening such as construction often board walks, reconstruction and repair of heritage building and monuments

Duplication of site


Modify timing of use


Modify location use with in problem area   



Hard strategies

1. Restriction on access and certain activity

Restriction on access is done by stopping the shuttle jeep services from top of the cave to the down which will actual actually take around 2.5 k.m. The reason for stopping shuttle service as they said is to control the disturbance due to the Jeep service, so from this it is clear that authorities made this decision rather to control the disturbance than to manage the visitors. Now the accessing consume a good amount of time so that many tourist (busy tourist) not advised (by travel agents and tour operators) to Edakkal cave. But there currently there are privet and public transportation available in the surrounding of destination.
Actually tourist are not permitted to do campsite or any activity in Edakkal cave, Cave is in the top of hill so early Edakkal cave involved an adventure element like climbing in the top of hill there was only a single rope , but today the situation is changed there is step ( made with metal) toward to the top of hill .
Grafting and writing name is consider as one of the major problem from the primary observation still this activity is going on no penalties and fines are imposed for such people. The rate of excursion group ( students) is considerably high.

2. Security site personal/ranges and police

Security person are appointed by DTPC on temporary wage rate, they are more concentrated on visitor security than the impact made by them. So there is still a need tightening security by giving them the authority to impose fine for disobedient activity of visitors. So here we rated as average, there is still missing the role of security to the protector of destination.

3. Implementation of rules and regulation

There is no special rules and regulation regarding to the protection of Edakkal cave except the common tourism lows. There we can see number of mining surrounding to the Edakkal cave, still there is no action taken against this. The drunken visitors are making noise and disturbances are common here. There is no limit or rule regarding the number of group.

4. Zoning

Zoning is normally done in protected areas, especially to categorize a specific location or region. In historical site also zoned to prevent the volume of use of destination. In Edakkal there is no zoning is determined.

5. Discriminated entrance fee and parking fee charge

This strategy is adopted in peak season and off season. Discriminated entrance fee is adopted when there is high tourist flow and low tourist flow. To prevent the flow of visitors it is necessary to charge high in peak season and charge low in off season. In Edakkal there has no such fee discrimination, the less costly fee always result an easy access even though in rush time.

7. Resource hardening such as construction often board walks, reconstruction and repair of heritage building and monuments

The resource hardening work such as concreted walk ways, metal staircase and metal gated petroglyphs of cave are used to minimize the impact. The resource hardening done to minimize the visitor’s impact on destination.

8. Duplication of site

Duplication of site means develop a nearby equally characterized destination to prevent the flow or we can say to divert the flow of visitors. So an alternative destination helps to control the number of visitors at great level with out affecting their impact. There is no duplication of site near Edakkal.

9. Modify timing of use

This is also a method to control the number of visitors and the impact from the visit, modify the time of use. For e.g.:- students are allowed in the Edakkal cave during morn 9 to 11 and teen age allowed after noon. Like this modifying the time of use can help us to control visitors. Edakkal is not practicing such things.

10. Modify location use with in problem area   

Problem area may be highly sensitive area; in case of heritage place there may be such sensitive area, so transfer the activity and visitation of such area. There is no such technique used in Edakkal.

Soft Strategies

  1. Provision of visitor information and environmental interpretation

This indicate soft measure technique which will gave a long effect, in Edakkal the archeological department staff will gave information about the wall drawings and history of cave but there dearth of information about the conservation and also manners needed to keep while such destination. Currently no broacher and any writing regarding the visitors manner they have to keep in a destination is involved. So there should be a better environmental interpretation needed to establish in the site.

2. Marketing of targeted visitors groups

Targeted visitors are the selected group of visitors, they are suitable for a destination or the destination is focusing on such customers. For eg:- an amusement park targeted customer may be teen age people, a pilgrim destination targeted customers may be old age and family people. Like that it is necessary to develop the destination to a group of people through this we can reduce the crowd pulling of the destination.

3. Landscaping and planting

Landscaping and planting will help to protect the environment especially in a protected area and it will reduce the pollution due to the various activity ( even though the industry considered as a smokeless one.. In a historical and cultural centre such plantation will help to maintain the environment which may effected by the continues visitation. The plantation will help to reduce pollution and also carbon emission from the destination. So it actually directly reduce the impact from the visitation. Edakkal didn’t try this strategy.

4. Education

 Educating the tourist and visitors before entering to the destination is another key point in the soft strategy. Educating them through video clips or presentation about the destination or any orientation speech may at least make a change in the visitor’s behavior while in the destination .This type activity is not functioning at Edakkal.

From the above observation it is clear that there is no such visitors management activity is practicing in a highly valuable and aged destination, the tourism in the place is still going with out understanding the carrying capacity and limit of acceptable change.